Given the Developments in Cloud Computing

What Precisely is Cloud Computing
Melissa Rittel
INF 103 Computer Literacy
Instructor: Phil Rietta
January 31, 2013

What precisely is Cloud Computing And why are so many organizations switching to this new phenomenon Cloud computing is defined as ???the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network, typically the Internet???. My goal in this paper is to discuss what exactly cloud computing is and how it is affecting businesses today. I will be discussing the top leading groups that have administered and executed ???the cloud??? in their daily routines for successful business. I also will be focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing and how it can be beneficial for IT government.
The idea of an “intergalactic computer network” was first introduced in the sixties by J.C.R. Licklider, who was responsible for enabling the development of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) in 1969. His dream was that every person in the world could be linked and could have access to their programs and data at any site, anywhere. Other experts accredit the cloud idea to computer scientist, John McCarthy, who first proposed the notion of computation being conveyed as a public utility, similar to the service bureaus which date back to the sixties (Mohammed, 2009).
Technology is ever expanding at a rapid pace all over the world. The earliest computers can be traced back to the late 1960??™s. However, in the present time, there is a computer device in almost every home worldwide, and you can obtain access to the internet on almost every single remote device such as smart phones, laptops, tablets etc. This is when and where the genius of software comes in, and changes the way technology is being developed and the way we conduct business.

One of the first major milestones for cloud computing was the appearance of Salesforce.com in 1999. They lead the way for the idea of providing enterprise applications through website. Salesforce.com created the way for other software companies to distribute other applications all over the internet.
The next big advancement was Amazon Web Services in 2002, which supplied a group of cloud-based services which included storage, computation and even human intelligence through the Amazon Mechanical Turk. In 2006, Amazon then launched its Elastic Compute cloud (EC2), as a commercial web service that allowed small companies and individuals to rent computers to run their own computer applications.
An additional milestone achievement came in 2009 when Web 2.0 hit its big mark and Google and other software companies started to provide browser-based enterprise applications, though services such as Google Apps (Hicks, 2011).
“The most important contribution to cloud computing has been the emergence of “killer apps” from leading technology giants such as Microsoft and Google. When these companies deliver services in a way that is reliable and easy to consume, the knock-on effect to the industry as a whole is a wider general acceptance of online services.??? -Dan Germain, chief technology officer at IT service (Vance, 2011).
So how does cloud computing exactly work What are its benefits and drawbacks Gmail is a great example of how cloud computing works. With Gmail you can gain access to your email from any remote device that you want to use. Cloud computing is pretty much the same just in a more expanded and detailed way. The cloud is your Gmail account and instead of emails, you have programs, documents, videos, and anything else you can think of can go into this cloud.

You can use your Smartphone, laptop, desktop or even a tablet. All these devices can access that cloud and use those programs, even if you don??™t have the supporting software on the device.
Cloud Computing will allow business and enterprises to expand and be more proficient on their documents, presentations or anything that they need or use in the cloud. I will give you an example on a lower type of cloud computing. ???There are three different types of cloud computing. There is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) a Platform as a Service (PaaS) and lastly is the Software as a Service (SaaS). These three types of clouds support different demands that business and corporations have.
???For instance the IaaS is more for storage and expanding. For the biggest corporation that utilizes IaaS is Verizon. Verizon uses this for holding data of phones and contracts, they are always expanding and always on the move.
PaaS is mainly linked to a particular vendor. After doing some research I have found out that the biggest corporation on PaaS would be Force.com. Force.com is a sister branch and is affiliated with Salesforce.com. Force.com helps build and send out apps for devices like iPhone, Android, etc.
Lastly the SaaS, this type of cloud is mostly used by Gmail.com and services of this type of nature. The reason Gmail.com utilizes this SaaS, is because people always want to view emails, and emails are only viewed online. The software that is used for writing and viewing emails is compatible for all devices, so you can use your cell phone or iPod touch to access the internet through WIFI and look at your emails??? (business service management hub, 2011).

Now that we have covered the types of Clouds, there are some different modes of clouds also. They are Private mode, Public mode, community mode, and Hybrid mode. Like the types, modes also fit certain vendors.
Private mode is for internal use, meaning you have a business and you are using the cloud server in your own business no one else can use it without your permission. Private mode is also self-maintained, you deal with the security, the info structure and everything else on your own.
Public cloud means that you have multiple users and everyone can use it. The best example for this would be Salesforce.com were you can download apps for phones or computers.
The cost is either cheaper or free for public clouds and you also get your money??™s worth for the public cloud, because you get what you pay for, so there is no wasting money in the aspects of buying more storage and not using it.
Hybrid cloud is the usage of both public and private clouding together. This means that you have internal clouding with some to little usage of outsiders. You (as the big business) must take care of the cloud as far as the security and the info structure of the cloud. Then you would sell little parts of the cloud storage to the (small businesses) to use. So you are paying for a bigger storage cloud, but having the outside users paying for the parts that they use.
Cloud computing is used for many things other than business. You and I use it daily, to look at documents, emails, movies, and other things. The only difference is that we use SaaS most of the time
. We check our Gmail, use Googledocs.com or YouTube and other things like that. Facebook.com is also a major user of the cloud. You can get on Facebook.com by phone desktop, laptop, and even your IPod touch.

The other great option you have about cloud computing is the locality of the cloud. There is three types of locality, you have local, remotely, and distributed. To help you better understand the three I will explain them for you. Local means that you are next to the cloud server and you are accessing the cloud server from within your building. If your server lost power you will not be able to access the cloud.
The next locality is remotely, meaning if you are on the go and you need to use an application or presentation that is stored in the cloud, you would access the cloud though the internet. This also has the same issue with local, that if the cloud server lost power you will not be able to access the cloud.
Then lastly you have the distributed locality. This means that you have multiple servers around the world. This is better of the three because you can access it locally and remotely, and if one server goes down you still can access another server to continue working.
Netflix is the most popular movie rental program out there. Basically you use it is by submitting your information for bill payment, and you can use your account to log on with any device and watch a movie of your choosing. You can watch a movie from Netflix from a device like the Xbox all the way up to your phone (certain phones). Cloud computing is similar like Netflix. You have a presentation to give in Japan, instead of carrying a CD around with the presentation on it and risk it getting scratched or lost or broken, you would use the cloud. Log on to the internet, go to your cloud, pull your presentation and you are ready to give your presentation.
Cloud computing is a fast growing service, more and more businesses and corporations are using it now. It is more efficient and affordable then to buy software,

hardware, and data storages. Cloud computing is growing faster than people ever thought it would. Apple has just come out with applications for the iPhones that will allow them to use cloud computing faster and easier.
Cloud computing almost makes hard drives and other software obsolete. You can store as much data as you want on this cloud for as long as you want, without taking up space on your computer. If you were to go to http://www.cloudme.com/en/register, you can sign up for a personal cloud that has 3GB available to you. 3GB can hold up (depending on size of document) 300,000 documents. Imagine a corporation like Verizon that will need at least 50 terabytes, which will be equivalent to 10,000 gigabytes. So to give a little example on how cost efficient the cloud is; you can buy one terabyte for $200.00 where as if you used the cloud you can get it for let??™s say $50.00 a month and keep adding more when you need it.
The other critical information that you must take into consideration is that you would have to purchase software and hardware for that one terabyte you are using. When you have a presentation to do in another business or country, you must then transport that terabyte or software to show the presentation for your consumers. If you were utilizing the cloud you will be able to take your computer (or use their computer) and be able to give the presentation without using software or hardware.

References
Arinze, B., & Anandarajan, M. (2010). Factors that determine the adoption of cloud computing: A global perspective. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems, 6(4), 55. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/921602826accountid=32521

Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Anthony, D. J., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., . . . Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230590913accountid=32521

GARRISON, G., KIM, S., & WAKEFIELD, R. L. (2012). Success Factors for Deploying Cloud Computing. Communications Of The ACM, 55(9), 62-68. doi:10.1145/2330667.2330685

Hicks, J Brandon. “Cloud Computing: Virtualizing Technology.” (2011): 1-17. University of Maryland University College. Web.

Mohamed, A. (2009). A history of cloud computing. Computer Weekly, Retrieved from http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/2009/06/10/235429/A-history-of-cloud-computing.htm

Vance, A. (2011). The cloud: battle of the tech titans. Bloomberg Business week, Retrieved fromhttp://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/11_11/b4219052599182.htm

Von Solms, R. R., & Viljoen, M. M. (2012). Cloud computing service value: A message to the board. South African Journal Of Business Management, 43(4), 73-81.